Stability of slopes ppt

10. In general, they are used to hold back or support soil banks and water or to maintain difference in the elevation of the ground surface on each of wall sides. T h e f a c t o r of safety equations are written pore pressures for slope stability problems The drawdown is known as one of the most dangerous conditions fo r the upstream side slope. Remarks on Safety Factor. The weight of the soil element is (15. only reduce prices Improving The Stability Of Slopes Using A Spaced Piling Technique|D, The Absence|Bill Hussey, The Voyage To Ruin|H. ) n is the sheet flow roughness coefficient for the slope surface, and s is the slope (as a fraction) The basic shear stress equation can be used to calculate the maximum shear stress expected on a slope: τo =γyS Slope Stability Example • Design storm peak flow rate (Q) = 2. Furthermore, the effects of the location, the length and the tensile strength of the reinforcement layers on the safety factor and the critical failure surface are investigated. Slope stability - design of embankments. Lowering of GWT to Reduce the Pore Pressures. Chapter 1 - Slopes, Geology and Materials 1. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and The stability condition of slopes is a subject of study and research in soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering and engineering geology. 4 m (90 ft) high. u definition. 5 Specification Stability studies should include testing of those attributes of the active substance that areThe BD VACUTAINER PPT Plasma Preparation Tube (PPT) (Becton Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) has replaced the BD VACUTAINER EDTA tube for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (HIVL) testing (3, 4, 5). Geotechnical Engineering L. Common Features of Slope Stability Analysis Methods Water Forces on Soil Infinite Slope Analysis Finite Slopes: Plane, Circular and Noncircular Failure Surfaces. Due to the rapid de-velopment of computing efficiency, several numeri-cal methods are gaining increasing popularity in slope stability engineering. InflationInflationInflation is an economic concept that refers to increases in the price level of goods over a set period of time. As shown in Fig. L. com Elliott Menashe Greenbelt Consulting & management tips for folks living on the edge SHORELINES ARE TEMPORARY PLACES poor management practices can make them even MORE temporary slope or isolated ridge, plays a significant role in stability of a slope. Sep 01, 2016 · • Slope stability problem is greatest problem faced by the open pit mining industry. SAYED MOHAMED ELARABY 2 f 1- Introduction It is estimated that 32,300 people died in 2,620 landslides between 2004 and 2010. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. ). Manual of Steel Construction Part 1 Dimensions and Properties C. Any one such as ABC in Fig. 101, No. Y1 - 2010. z Calculation to check the safety of natural slopes, slopes of excavations and of compacted embankments. Criteria are presented for strength tests, analysis conditions, and factors of safety. . Erosion, driven by gravity, is the inevitable response to that uplift, and various types of erosion, including mass wasting, have created slopes in the uplifted regions. SP - s1-s112. com is group of dedicated people who are active to help people to findПеретащите файл сюда. I found here Soil Strength And Slope Stability|Thomas L what I want exactly, I scored very good marks in my assignments only due to your highly qualified writers who wrote my Exceptional dynamic stability under airflow, fast temp ramp ±5 to ±50 ppb over-temp stability 2e-11 ADEV at 10 seconds averaging time, under airflow 0. VKA = 10). , anchors, geo-reinforcements etc. 5 for the factor of safety with respect to strength is acceptable for the design of a stable slope. It is carried out to analyze the safe design of all type of natural or manmade slopes. The stability of any soil slope depends on the shear strength of the soil typically expressed by friction angle (f) and cohesion (c). This type of analysis is also utilized to determine Step 1: Define a 2D cross-section. Sebastian Bryson University of Kentucky * * * * Cofferdams are often used in temporary works, to enclose the construction area within a continuous sheet pile wall around and protect it from water entering from outside. Useful Information 2016-2017 SLOPE STABILITY - LECTURE NOTES - DR. These methods have their own Missouri University of Science and Technology – Missouri S&T James Madison University MSP Slope Stability - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. 1 Introduction 2. "An Engineering Manual for Slope Stability. In slope instability investigation, it is desirable to know the causes of instability. Allows you to analyze the stability of a slope based on the soil structure. When benching is necessary , the width and height shall be based on the type of equipment used for cleaning of benches or for scaling of walls, banks, and slopes. 5 1 1. This article will examine the applicability of the finite • Short, slope toe drains of medium spacing are able to promote slope stability. in order to enhance stability of the backfill, crusher dust is employed that has fine particles like soft sand, crusher dust is Slope Stability updated June 7, 2007 Haryo Dwito Armono, M. e. com - id: 11cc9b-NWQ3O Lecture 12: Slope Stability . Professor Young−Kyo Seo, Post−Doctoral Research Assoc. 8 2Hd 0. The introduction of powerful desktop personal computers Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Slopes are often a natural part of the landscape, yet construction of roads and buildings near them is necessary in many regions. Effective drainage measures are thus necessary to avoid or minimize water-induced instabilities. qLimit analysis qFinite difference qFinite element (more flexible). Apr 12, 2017 · • Slope stability analysis consists of determining and comparing the shear stress developed along the potential rupture surface with the shear strength of the soil. Just press one button and get the necessary element! Such templates are in demand as they help hundreds of users and office employees make their work easier, more convenient and efficient. When selecting slope angle, β, and slope height, H, slope angles should be no steeper than 70° and slope heights may be limited by surface water runoff considerations Foundation Conditions. Stability Analysis of Complex Soil Slopes using Limit Analysis. Jun 26, 2012 · SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS. This is defined as the ratio between the maximum height of a slope to the actual height of a slope and may be expressed as follows: where, C m = Mobilized Cohesion. The 2001 R. There are several software packages developed for stability analysis which utilise the Limit Equilibrium (LE) Method, Finite Element (FE)An Introduction To Slope Stability Slope Stability. Often, sandstone is exposed in high bluffs where it would be impractical to cut it to a soil slope. Jehad Hamad. , "Principles of Geotechnical Engineering, 5th edition", Thomson Learning (2002). There are a lot of engineering structures For the stability analysis of slope, factor of safety can be calculated by different methods. We have learned how to perform each of the above three hypothesis tests. As this paper will show, slope stability analysis by elasto-plastic ®nite elements is accurate, robust and simple enough for routine use by practising en-gineers. Limerinos resistance and Meyer-Peter and Müller sediment transport equations Figure 9–22 Top width verses base width for example problem 9–47 which has 1V:2. 5 3 3. In a system, all slope-related spatial information (vector or raster dataset) are integrated; the study area is divided into Slope Unit which possesses approximate inclination; assuming the initial slip to be the lower part of an ellipsoid, the 3-D critical slip surface in the 3-D slope stability analysis is located by This is an aspect-slope map of the Crater Lake area in Oregon. 3. R. Purpose. 15. 2 Stability equations for high-crested conventional breakwaters Slope Stability & weathering by Classification - Hack - Bad Bentheim 25/08/2018 11 Smaller allowed variability of the properties in a geotechnical unit results in: higher accuracy of geotechnical calculations less risk that a calculation or design is wrong Slope Stability & weathering by Classification - Hack - Bad Bentheim 25/08/2018 12 5. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1988. 19a to keep the 4) common intercept and slope (pooled batches) - Model #2 is not allowed following ICH guidelines still considered an important mo del to consider by colleagues for stability limiting characteristic s that should be at 0% or 100% at 0-months storage time Pharmaceutical Stability Shelf Life August 1, 2010 12 ICH Estimation IssuesLongitudinal (or pitch) stability is similarly calculated, but it is usually secondary, since the waterplane area is very long very high GM. The STABL slope stability system allows computerized searching for a variety of shapes for potential sliding surfaces. The reciprocal of the slope of line “a”, (dH/dT), is the heat required to change the temperature of one mole of substance (at constant pressure) by 1°CF. A detailed understanding of the hydraulic conditions is therefore essential for a satisfactory design of structures. • The La Salle-Krasowskii stability criterion is a “refinement” of the direct Lyapunov criterion. Answer: a Explanation: An analysis of stability of slopes consist of determining the most severely stressed internal surface and the magnitude of the shearing stress to which it is subjected and determining theSlope stability analysis software for general shape failure surface. The limit-equilibrium-based method of slope stability analysis uses the pore pressure information along an assumed failure surface with littleAbstract: The analysis of slope stability has received widely attention now days because of its practical importance. Reed, PG August 16, 2017 Test Bed Figure 9–21 Stability curve depth versus base width, Q = 1,500 ft3/s, 9–47 bed-material sediment concentration = 1917 mg/L. All types of soil and rock slopes, embankmentsTypical slope stability software can analyze the stability of generally layered soil slopes, embankments, earth cuts, and anchored sheeting structures. 4. As an improvement of the French 'displacement method', (Gourc et al. An introduction to slope instability Natural slopes Fundamental properties of soil and rocks Measurement of shear strength Principles of stability analysis Techniques used in stability analysis Water pressures in slopes Remedial and corrective measures for slope stabilizatio Investigation ofThe required stability conditions of rock slopes will vary depending on the type of project and the consequence of failure. 4 Summary - mitigating the potential for erosion of the armour layer 11 slope, causing it to be undermined and to then collapse (even though it may Analysis of the Three-dimensional Stability of Earth Slopes and Waste Containment Facilities Subject: Dissertation Research Author: J. By using a shear strength reduction method in the COMSOL Multiphysics® software, civil and geotechnical engineers can evaluate the stability of dam embankments to predictRecommended Stability Methods. This practical reference gives you the comprehensive information you need for slope stabilityThe slope stability analysis is crucial in engineering practice to ensure the stability of structures and prevent loss of human life and money. , (1975) "End Effects on Stability of Cohesive Slopes,“ Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 3 Undermining Damage and Failure 12 Nov 01, 2010 · Abstract It is now widely accepted that climate change is occurring and that this will affect the processes and parameters that determine the stability of slopes. " Proc. Thus, there is no evolution of base profile in this case. The motivation comes from the study of Dirichlet branes in string theory, and especially from M. de 2020 This method was first introduced by Fellenius (1926) for analysis of slope stability of C-φ soil. LECTURE OUTLINE. Types of Slope FailuresTypes of Slope Failures zFalls zTopless zSlides zSpreads zFlows Falls ࡱ > ( F 8 pѳ?Q: oN JFIF dd Ducky &Adobed N } ! 1) Estimate the stability of slopes with simple geometry and geological features 2) Understand the forces and activities that provoke slope failures 3) Understand the effects of geology, seepage and pore water pressures on the stability of slopes Slope failure is related to the following reasons: soil properties or soil type of slope, geometry of slope, weight, water content (one of the most aggressive factor reducing shearing strength of slope), tension cracks and vibrations due to earthquakes. 2 The importance of rock interlocking on revetment stability 10 2. • The stability of a particular rock slope is This paper shows application of GEO5 slope stability software package to evaluate stability of the retaining wall designed to stop more landslides within the space. 1 Active pharmaceutical ingredient 2. Calculated factor of safety = 0. CHAPTER 1 - Slope Stability. 178(a), which are based on ANSI B56. The 3-dimensional slope stability analysis has been developing rapidly since the last decade, and currently a number of geomechanical researchers in the world have put forward ideas for optimization of slope design related to the economics and safety of mining operations. This is the detachment of soil and/or rock fragments that fall down a slope (Figure 15. o Limit equilibrium method o Limit analysis method o Numerical methods We will consider only the limitSlope stability analysis: The term slope means a portion of the natural slope whose original profile has been modified by artificial interventions relevant with respect to stability. The classical way to analysis the slope stability is accessed using two methods; the basic continuum mechanics or the limit equilibrium approach. The methods of analysis used may depend upon the characteristics of the dam and foundation, the material properties and At the Jinping-I hydropower station the excavation height on the slope of the left bank is about 530 m. water embankments, open-pit mining, mine excavations, landfills etc. It is a slightly modified JavaScript clone of the slope stability software STABR Ver. 1 Stability equations; definitions 3. Slope is the ultimate running game that will put your skills to the test. 5 When dry soil with Vetiver (B) became wet, FS reduces from 4. and Bray, J. The upstream shell cannot stay stabile under the hydrodynamic pressure due to rapid drawdown. 2011;29(4):310-312 artificial dataset separate slope separate intercept common slope common intercept 2) common intercept with unequal slopes among batches 3) unequal intercepts with common slope among batches 4) common intercept and slope (pooled batches) – Model #2 is not allowed following ICH guidelines still considered an important mo del to consider by colleagues for stability limiting characteristic s that should be at 0% or included both existing cut slopes where the slope stability parameters had to be defined, and the stability confirmed, and new cut faces where stability of these cut slopes would need to be analysed to ensure safe slope designs are maintained. If the A Study of Unstable Slopes in Permafrost Areas: Alaskan Case Studies Used as a Training Tool. By sponsoring Convergence @DoraHacks: @ProjectSerum & @wormholecrypto Hackathon, Slope hopes to help dig out and incentivize those highly potential DeFi projects that leverage the underlying technologies of Serum and Wormhole and thus facilitate the fast development of #SolanaInteractive lesson with video explanation of how to find the slope of a line given two points or its graph whether the slope is positive, negative or undefined The slope of a line through the points (3, 4) and (5, 1) is $$- \frac{3}{2}$$ because every time that the line goes down by 3(the change in y or the rise)Slope is building the future of decentralized exchange and wallet for community. Slope Stability Evaluations by Limit Equilibrium and Finite Element Methods. SLOPE/W can effectively analyze both simple and complex problems for a SLOPE/W can be used to complete a stability analysis with the objective being to check an ultimate limit state in accordance with various limit stateShowing 31 open source projects for "slope stability analysis". Schuster, U. 2. Slope stability is one of the most important problems in geotechnical engineering because failure could cause catastrophic environmental and human disaster, in addition to large economical losses due to such failure. This article will examine the applicability of the finite Stability Class Definitions. You can change the picture with yours, and add or delete the text areas. 9th Australia New Zealand Conference on Geomechanics, Auckland, 1, 391-397. The objectives of this project are summarized as follow:. Sarma method (1973) The method of Sarma is a simple, but accurate method for the analysis of slope stability, whichSlope Stability Analysis Using Finite Element Techniques. Kliche (1999) defined slope stability as the resistance of any inclined surface, as the wall of an open pit or cut, to failure by sliding or collapsing. Stability of slopes - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. • Krahn, John (2007). Fu, Ph. 70 lbs. It should not be neglected that the Method of Slices is a 2-dimensional method hence, a representative cross-section of the slope (or embankment) of interest must be developed. 3 Natural slopes and their stability 1. ————– Example. The adequate assessment of slopes is a major concern of geotechnical engineers that how close or far the slopes are from failure. 6 Page No. The proposed analysis, although based on the kinematical approach of limit analysisThe stability analysis of earth slopes located in seismic areas has been extensively investigated in literature using deterministic approaches. A numerical simulation is carried through finite difference software. Slope stability is ultimately determined by two factors: the thus an increased slope is offset by an increase in bed material size • Structure is built at grade and does not change upstream or downstream flow conditions Initial Condition with degradational zone between A and B Stabilization with 3 bed control structures 3 5 >∝ 3 æ & 9 4 > Limit equilibrium types of analysis to assess stability have been used in geotechnical engineering for decades. 4 Methods of Stability Analysis 37 5. u n1. It can be used mainly for preliminary analysis of slopes since it can provide an estimate of the factor of safety with minimum effort from the user. 2 Slope Stability at the Aitik Mine 1. The stability computations serve as a basis either for the redesign of slope of an existing structure or for deciding the slope of a new structure and also limitations through case studies of slope design in open pit mines. Norwegian University of Science and Technology Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology Department of Civil and Transport Engineering. • The key question with regard to rock slopes along highways is their long-term stability since failure of a rock slope can have serious consequences. This section focuses on techniques of soil slope stability analysis and stabilization and provides selected case studies to illustrate some of the approaches commonly adopted. ( Last slide) The shear strength of soil is assumed to follow Coulomb's law s = c' + σ ' tanφ ' * Stability Analysis of infinite slope in Sand Imagine an infinite Stability of Slopes stability of slopes limit equilibrium analyses of methods of slices translational slip analyses 12 introduction 12. ppt Author: rpitt Created Date: 6/18/2004 9:06:42 AM Surface Slope Failure Photos used to illustrate various types of surface slope failure. Mine slope is basically formed by dynamic excavation of multi-level and multi-type, and mining benefit is the purpose of mine slope engineering when using various schemes and/or methods. Seismic stability of slopes reinforced with geosynthetics is analysed within the framework of the pseudo- static approach. Robertson - CicloGB #5 Numerical Methods for Slope Stability Missouri University of Science and Technology – Missouri S&T T1 - Slope stability classification : powerpoint. stability analysis carried out and the suggestions made for restoring the problematic area of Pomendi Cutting. (decrease the slope) in situations where surcharge loads, or vibration could weaken the slope walls as well. Civilax is the Knowledge Base covering all disciplines in Civil Engineering. In these maps, color hues such as red, green, and blue represent different directions. The method gives a probability of failure and a reliability of the calculations. angle of repose . Key Questions. de 2019 The common methods for the analysis of a slope's stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. u Φ angle of internal friction uCSlope Stability Analysis for High Embankment with Metacomputing Technique "A Case Study of NATRAX High Speed Track". EXAMPLE Referring to Fig. Stability of the environment • To determine the environmental stability, one must calculate the lapse rate for a sounding • lapse rate = -DT/DZ = (T2-T1)/(Z2-Z1) • Since the environment is often composed of layers with different stabilities, it is useful to first identify these layers and then calculate their respective lapse rates Soil Mechanics- Slope Stability. Slope Stability Analysis Basics. Page 5 of8 . M3 - Other. Narrow aisles Slope: A & A of existing slopes Plan submission is required for both temporary and permanent stages of ERSS(GBW) For excavation involving hill slope (with reinforcing or strengthening works), QP and AC are required for plan submission if the affected slope height exceed 4 m. D. The increasing demand for engineered cut and fill slopes on construction projects has only increased the slope stability by classification sspc rmr gsi robert hack engineering geology, esa, itc, faculty of geo-information science and earth observation, university of twente, the netherlands. Slope Stability Guidelines for Design. Dry Stability If an air parcel is dry, meaning unsaturated, stability is relatively straightforward. 22 de abr. (shear strength of the material, ability of particles in the rock to stay together) Keywords- Slope Stability, Limit Equilibrium, Finite Element Method, PLAXIS, Rocscience Slide 6. Slope - stability analysis of slopes. M. Slope protection approaches discussed below include erosion control blankets combinationsof rainfall eventsonthe stability of a slope Reduction in Suctions with Time 0 0. It assumes that the shape of failure plane is in the form of cylindrical arc, and the centre of the possible failure are is known. 4 de mar. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay Stability analysis of a slope and finding critical slip Jan 29, 2004 · Peterson/Puritan OU2 -Stability Analysis December 2003 Shield Engineering, Inc. G . A new methodology for probabilistic rock slope stability assessment was developed. and slope failures. 17 Probabilistic slope stability analysis . Effects of Seepage Cont’d In the stability of slopes, the seepage force is a very important factor. Abut. Ground Stability Videos Browse our collection of Ground Stability videos. In geotechnical literature, this margin is usually called the safety factor, but to avoid confusion the term slope instability margin (SIM) is used in this study. This approach is a new and unique application of slopeStability of Slopes Limit Equilibrium Analyses of Methods of Slices T ranslational Slip Analyses 3 stability coef ficients for slopes in normally. External loading on the top of slope in the form of overburden dumps be avoided, as such situations adversely affects the stress equilibrium inside the slope. The global stability analysis of the reinforced slope, which includes this local stability analysis for each sheet of reinforcement, is described in the companion paper. 2020 Jan;476(2233):20190450. Drive a ball rolling down a series of the slope, avoid obstacles and Features of Slope 3. 85 ! ! dx 0. N1 - Presented as guest lunch lecture on probabilistic rock mass classification. Moreover, the antecedent rainfall used in most of pre-vious studies is hypothetical (Ng, Wang, and Tung 2001). Weathered geology: Weak, weathered bedrock, jointed rock, or bedrock that dips parallel to the slope can decrease stability. 18% during 2018-2023. An earth slope is an un supported, inclined surface of a soil mass. Assessing a slope's stability is a challenging yet important aspect of civil engineering. 1. wall, bank and slope stability in places where persons work or travel in performing their assigned tasks. 1 STABILITY OF NATURAL SLOPES, ROCK BUND AND The stability of natural sand slopes is conveniently estimated based on the friction angle (ϕ) of sand. gTable 6-1. 77 MB 5K. Drains are added to stabilize slopes. In every slope there are forces which tend to promote downslope movement and opposing forces which tend to resist movement. I didn’t even believe it was my essay at first :) Great job, thank you! Types Of Slope Failure / Compound: / The sliding mass can travel long distances before coming to rest. The instability will be triggered by dredging sand at the toe of this steep slope. 5H side slopes EFFECT Of VETIVER ON SLOPE STABILITY ON DRY AND WET SOIL Wet soil No Vetiver With Vetiver Slope Gradient (o) Cohesion: 5 KN/m2 Angle of friction: 35o On dry soil with Vetiver (A), when slope gradient increases from 30o to 50o, FS reduces from 4. 2 Consequence Category of Highway Slopes 38 4. • Longer drains may be necessary for more anisotropic conditions (i. By type UV absorbers are generated the highest revenue of value 0. The con-cepts have been widely applied to the stability analysis of earth slopes. A finite slope is one with a base and top surface, the height being limited. 1 General 37 4. A Aug 06, 2014 · Download spreadsheet to calculate Slope Stability Calculation. NOTE: Stability analyses of known failures can be used to help constrain parameter values such as friction angles, that can then be used in analyses of other slopes to help assess the potential of future rock slope failures. This chapter provides further discussion and explanation related to stability of slope. Then three separate Factor ofThis method of slope stability analysis is not widely used since it has been found that plane surfaces of sliding are observed only with very steep slopes, and for relatively flat slopes the surfaces of sliding are almost always curved. The infinite plane slope stability model with wetness (pore pressure) obtained from a topographically-- based steady state hydrology model has been used to map a terrain stability s is equal to 1, the slope is in a state of impending failure. ppt - INTRODUCTION TO GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING JGTE 3203 COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME CLO1 Understand and analyse stability of. During the transition between the actual geometry and the CUR113 safe design, a steep slope will be excavated. 2 at 30o slope A B Figures 12 and 13 present the SPC location and a view of the slopes. Just remember to avoid obstacles and those red blocks. ppt), PDF File (. de 2019 The analyses of slope stability are based on simplifying assumptions, and the design of a stable slope relies heavily on experience and Stability Analysis of Slopes: Factor of safety: Factor of safety of a slope is defined as the ratio of average shear strength (Ƭf) of a soil to the average Different software programs for analyzing and examining slope stability were https://www. Jun 08, 2017 · Stability of surface slope is a big challenge when underground excavation carried out just below the slope by the conventional drilling and blasting method. 2019-2018. Lecture -1 on Stability of Slopes Prof. Slope Stability Analysis Simplified Bishop S Method. Prototype; Conclusion. However these methods have several disadvantages and may neglect some important factors. SLOPE/W can effectively analyze both simple and complex problems for a variety of slip surface shapes, pore-water pressure conditions, soil properties, and loading conditions. Note slopes. Title: Slope stability classification of time dependent deteriorating slopes : powerpoint: Author: Hack, H. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay Stability analysis of a slope and finding critical slip 1. The slopes of a deep pit are cut into a series of locally steep slopes (> 450) each about 5‐15 meters high depending on the stability of the rock and the equipment in use. Calculated F. 4 Summary - mitigating the potential for erosion of the armour layer 11 2. Firstly, two-dimension numerical models are built to investigate the influence of the dilation angle of ubiquitous joints, mesh discretization, and solution domain size on ࡱ > ( F 8 pѳ?Q: oN JFIF dd Ducky &Adobed N } ! Slope failure is related to the following reasons: soil properties or soil type of slope, geometry of slope, weight, water content (one of the most aggressive factor reducing shearing strength of slope), tension cracks and vibrations due to earthquakes. INTRODUCTION Slopes of mines and quarries, some of which may reach several hundred meters deep, must be With its rich lithological variation, upland, lowland and coastal settings, and past climatic changes, the UK presents a wide variety of landslide features that can pose significant hazards to people, construction and infrastructure, or simply add to landscape character and conservation value of an area